Under the Habitats Directive European member states are obliged to study the desirability of reintroducing species made locally extinct. Species reintroduced to Britain include the osprey, red kite, great bustard, beaver, pool frog and large blue butterfly. Other large native animals now absent in Britain include the grey wolf (absent since the 17thC), European bison (12thC) and European brown bear (11thC). Proposals are likely to be controversial if they risk new and unwanted ecological effects.

This definition is abridged from A – Z of tree terms: A companion to British arboriculture.
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